Grammar and ESL Teaching: Past and Present Voltage


Teaching grammar is important as part of ESL programs; while it is a controversial subject, it is proven that the "natural pupils" of the second languages ​​do not become familiar in the language if they do not understand the basic structure of grammar. Hinkel and Fotos (2002) note that individuals who are 15 years of "critical period" endanger this problem, and individuals who have sufficient language to communicate to gaps in grammar. English as their second language does not get the negative feedback that tells them they are doing something wrong to be in a structured position. (18)

The purpose of this study is to review the literature to prove that they pay close attention to verbal tension

Literary Review

Plotnik speaks of the effect of tension: every narrative has a fundamental tension that promotes communication. Use of tension creates a mood of conversation or a story – traditionally the telling medium in which events are taking place and people have done their destiny. There is a finite basis for the expired time. Current tension, however, promotes feelings or moods of immediacy, as well as opportunities for change and flexibility (Plotnik, 2003).

According to Mc Carthy and Carter (2002), communication relational aspects and expression requirements are manifested in politely and indirectly (as opposed to openly) often in foreign forms, which are part of the knowledge of the correct grammatical construct. These include verbs that are in a progressive context that they want, for example, them, and so on. The range of tension helps individuals to establish relationships in the relational, interpersonal sense. The Tension Strategy creates a connection between the speaker, the event, and the student, which includes or removes the participants from the event and from each other. Understanding and using the past and present tension can significantly increase not only the effective communication of oral and written messages, but also the correct and proactive development of the relational aspects of events and situations that play an important role in proactive grammar education. 19659002] The constraints of mapping English past tensions are well documented by ESL students in various language tasks, including spontaneous conversations, performed productions, sentence completion, recall of sentence, making meaningless forms, writing patterns, and grammatical judgments. Specifically, "the morphofonological component of English stress signal represents the pattern that children need to draw from the input to produce different forms associated with the past tension, specifically, children need to learn" add-on "the various alternative phonological processes that show the past time of irregular verbs. "

There is a semantic contrast between the periods under the three bits, the time, the factuality and the reverse. The primary use of past times indicates a situation in which "actions, events, processes, relationships, states, or anything expressed by the clause" are dynamic (in this case "happen") or static, in which case "" … The past time can be more immediate with a time such as "yesterday", a definite time when the subject of the sentence occurred. Using the remarks of the past tension to something that has happened but does not necessarily indicate that the situation continues to this day.

Huddleston (1984) noted that the past time is a conceptual relational concept; the historical stress relief indicates that the situation or even its position has elapsed in another time, usually when saying or writing a sentence. Current tension is usually present or future, and is expressed in time (for example, the next week), or a subordinate when there is a clause like "coming to talk to him", indicating the future. An important use of the subordinate clause is limited to cases where the future situation in which the expected event occurs is assured – Huddleston is in the following week in the following example: the meaningless misuse of this tension versus action is "We are going to Paris next week" (145). This example shows that misuse of past and present tensions can not only damage communication and understanding but also affect the "face" of the loudspeaker / writer in social and working conditions.

Quirk, Greenbaum, Leech and Svartik (1995) identified five alternating classes used in the English pastures

The first class contains all the regular verbs (eg cleansed, cracked, broken) it consists of verbs whose past and past forms of participation are the same (eg brought, built, caught, stayed, held, said, taught, thought, said). The second class contains high frequency, irregular verbs such as faith, cutting and breaking, which remain unchanged through present, past or past participle forms. A third class of irregular verbs is linked to the past by the past. This class contains verbs like beat, broken, talkative, stolen. For the fourth class of irregular verbs, the morphine is suspended in the present tense form (for example, exploded, ate, taken, thrown). The final classes of unusual verbs use forms of participation that differ from both current and past forms (eg Drums, gone, written, or ridden).

Redmond (2003) notes in four advanced grammatical contexts: passive, present perfect, past perfect, and past modal. From syntactic and semantic perspectives, individual applications are complex as compared to simple active blocks as they need speakers to coordinate tension, sound, aspect, and mood in verbal density

Ion and Wexler's 2002 research of 20 children ESL students have found that they almost never produce inaccurate tension / agreement morpohology. The researchers also noted that "L2 students use auxiliary inflexion significantly more than affixal inflection and over-generating auxiliary forms in the absence of progressive participants (eg Helping People).

Similarly, the grammatical role of the English language / agreement morphology shows that ESL pupils are significantly more sensitive to the "paradigm" than to the thematic verbs. These results suggest that tension in students' grammar is based on the form of aids. They argue that the failure of inflection can be attributed to the problems associated with the realization of surface morphology … and it is suggested that second-language students initially associate morphological agreement with verbal development, and thus the in situ thematic verbs before inflection morphology (95).


Correct use of tension is an important skill for adult ESL individuals and learning plans are developed directly for this purpose. their community about what they want and need what they have done and done so far and their identity based on their past and future needs.

It is important for ESL students to learn grammar to be able to express personal thoughts in the proper syntax. Effective use of syntax is important to show different attitudes and express power and identity. Even some of the wrong forms of grammar can be interpreted by the student / reader as rough or poor. More specifically, an individual can express his or her thoughts and meanings, the more effective communication, and the greater the success in interpersonal and business communication between people.


Hinkel E. and Fotos, S. (ed.) (2002). New Perspectives in Grammar in Second Language Classrooms. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erbaum Associates

Huddleston, R. (1984). Introduction to English Grammar. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Ionin, T., and Wexler, K. (2002). Why is it "lighter" than "-s"? Acquiring the morphology of tension / agreement as a child in the second English language. Second Language Research, 18 (2): 95-136.

McCarthy, M., and Carter, R. (2002). Ten Criteria for Speaking Grammar. In: Hinkel E. and Fotos, S. (ed.) New Perspectives in Grammar in Second Language Classrooms. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erbaum Associates

Plotnik, A. (2003). Tense matter! Writer, 116 (10): 17-18.

Quirk, R., Greenbaum, S., Leech, G. and Svartvik, J. (1995). The comprehensive grammar of English. New York: Longman

Redmond, S.M. (2003). Children's productions in past and past participatory contexts. Journal of Speech, Language and Hearing Resources, 46 (5): 1095-109.

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Source by Julie Larson

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